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What is Solar PV System and How it Works

Solar energy is captured through solar panels and is turned in to electricity for businesses and homes utilization. The sun is actually a nuclear reactor and is releasing photons continuously. Photons are actually packets of energy that are traveling about 93 million miles to earth from sun in time of 9 minutes. There are enough packets of energy every hour that can satisfy the use of energy needs on earth for a year. The current photovoltaic cells available for harvesting solar power is accounting only 5/10 part of 1 percent only. However, with improvement in solar energy harvesting techniques sun’s energy can be utilized for the production of electricity.

Working of Solar Panels

Whenever photons are hitting the solar cells, they are knocking out electrons from its atoms. There are conductors attached to both negative and positive sides of the cell and are forming electrical circuitry. At the time when electrons start flowing through this circuit, electricity is generated. Now, the solar PV array or solar panel is made of a large number of such cells. Therefore, the larger the number of panels, the more energy is harvested.

Composition of Solar Panels


The photovoltaic cells of a solar panel are composed of numerous solar cells and each cell is made of silicon in the same way as conductors. The cells are made of negative and positive layers and are created electric field together, the same functioning as in a battery.

Generation of Electricity through Solar Panels

The photovoltaic cells of panels are generating direct current. The electrons are flowing in a specific direction through the direct current. The electrons are starting to move from the negative side and then end on the positive side of the battery. Through the alternating current mechanism, the electrons are then pulled and pushed alternatively and the phenomenon becomes like an electric generator.

Inverter for converting DC to AC

As stated, the photovoltaic cells are fetching DC electricity from solar energy which needed to be converted into AC. Therefore, an inverter is used for the purpose which acts as the brain of the entire system. The inverter is also providing a ground for the detecting of faults along with the conversion of DC to AC. The inverters have been dominating the solar power industry right from its start. Now the micro-inverters have been introduced shifting the solar power industry to a new level. The micro-inverters are optimizing the energy harvested by individual solar panels. This is enhancing the performance of every solar panel to maximize its efficiency.

Working of Solar Power Panel System

First of all, sunlight is hitting the cells of a solar panel which are converter into DC electricity. The DC electricity is flowing through an inverter and is converted to AC electricity. This is a simple process for the clean harvesting of solar energy. A charge controller is used for the safe charging of batteries in case if the battery bank is connected to it. It is often said that PV arrays are able to harvest solar energy all day long; however, the fact is that there is a specific time for maximum harvesting and it is approximately 4 to 5 hours in a day of the summer season.

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